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howtos:network_services:postfix_dovecot_mysql:database [2015/02/15 07:38 (UTC)]
astrogeek
howtos:network_services:postfix_dovecot_mysql:database [2015/06/11 14:42 (UTC)] (current)
tim [Creating Mail Database Tables]
Line 1: Line 1:
-===== Virtual Mail Server Database =====+====== Virtual Mail Server Database ​======
  
-<note important>​A work in progress...</​note>​+This page is supplemental to main article: [[howtos:​network_services:​postfix_dovecot_mysql|Creating a Virtual Mail Server with Postfix, Dovecot and MySQL]]
  
 +The database is used to provide configuration and authentication for your virtual mail domains and mail boxes. Email content is not stored in the database in this configuration.
 +
 +If you have a full Slackware installation with MySQL already working then you may skip to the next section.
 +
 +If you need to install MySQL (MariaDB) then grab the package and sigfile from a repo, verify it, then install it:
 +<​code>​
 +# For 32 bit package #
 +wget http://​slackware.osuosl.org/​slackware-14.1/​patches/​packages/​mariadb-5.5.40-i486-2_slack14.1.txz
 +wget http://​slackware.osuosl.org/​slackware-14.1/​patches/​packages/​mariadb-5.5.40-i486-2_slack14.1.txz.asc
 +# For 64 bit package #
 +wget http://​slackware.osuosl.org/​slackware64-14.1/​patches/​packages/​mariadb-5.5.40-x86_64-2_slack14.1.txz
 +wget http://​slackware.osuosl.org/​slackware64-14.1/​patches/​packages/​mariadb-5.5.40-x86_64-2_slack14.1.txz.asc
 +gpg --verify mariadb-5.5.40...txz.asc {path to your downloaded package sigfile}
 +installpkg mariadb-5.5.40...txz
 +</​code>​
 +<​note>​If installing to a Linode.com VPS you may also need to install the libaio package for your Slackware version.</​note>​
 +You will then need to initialize the database server and start it. Follow the instructions found in the top comments of the start script, /​etc/​rc.d/​rc.mysqld. Here is a short summary...
 +<​code>​
 +mysql_install_db --user=mysql
 +...
 +chmod +x /​etc/​rc.d/​rc.mysqld
 +/​etc/​rc.d/​rc.mysqld start
 +...
 +mysql_secure_installation
 +</​code>​
 +
 +==== Creating Mail DB User and Database ====
 +Your database server should now be running and have a root mysql user password set.
 +
 +Next we need to create a database, and a user to access it on behalf of our mail server.
 +
 +We will use the highly original names //​mailserver//​ for our database, and //​mailuser//​ for our user.
 +
 +You may easily create both as follows, as root (provide the root mysql user password when prompted):
 +
 +<​code>​
 +mysql -p -e "​CREATE DATABASE mailserver"​
 +mysql -p -e "GRANT ALL ON mailserver.* TO mailuser@localhost IDENTIFIED BY '​your-password'"​
 +</​code>​
 +
 +Remember the mailuser password for when we configure postfix and dovecot later.
 +
 +==== Creating Mail Database Tables ====
 +Neither Postfix nor Dovecot place any restrictions on the data structures you should use to support virtual mail functions. Their only requirements are that you must supply a set of queries that return specific fields as needed.
 +
 +This gives you total flexibility to integrate your mail system into any arbitrary operating environment. It also means that there is no default database structure, so we //must// provide it ourselves!
 +
 +<note tip>We will create only a minimal database schema, sufficient to get the system working.
 +If you need to serve multiple domains or many virtual users, you will probably want to extend it by adding other columns or tables which meet your specific needs.</​note>​
 +
 +Figure 2 below, shows the schema of our virtual mail database.
 +{{ howtos:​network_services:​postfix_dovecot_mysql:​schema.gif }}
 +
 +  * virtual_domains - Contains an entry for each domain name served by virtual email
 +  * virtual_users - Contains an entry for each virtual mail box served
 +  * virtual_aliases - Maps aliases (source) to actual mail boxes (destination)
 +to create these tables, type
 +<​code>​mysql --user="​mailuser"​ -p -e "​CREATE TABLE virtual_domains( id INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,​ name VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY ( id ) );" mailserver
 +
 +mysql --user="​mailuser"​ -p -e "​CREATE TABLE virtual_users( id INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,​ domain_id INT NOT NULL , password VARCHAR(106) NOT NULL, email VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY ( id ) ,FOREIGN KEY (domain_id) REFERENCES virtual_domains(id));"​ mailserver
 +
 +mysql --user="​mailuser"​ -p -e "​CREATE TABLE virtual_aliases( id INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,​ domain_id INT NOT NULL, source VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL, destination VARCHAR(100) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY ( id ),FOREIGN KEY (domain_id) REFERENCES virtual_domains(id) );" mailserver
 +</​code>​ each time supplying the password you gave for the mysql mailuser user.
 +==== Adding Domain Entries ====
 +To add entries to the virtual_domains table using the mysql client:
 +<​code>​
 +mysql -p mailserver
 +mysql> INSERT INTO virtual_domains SET id=NULL, name='​my-domain.com';​
 +quit
 +</​code>​
 +
 +This table must include entries for each domain served by your virtual mail server.
 +
 +You should add at least the following rows:
 +
 +  * The domain name - my-domain.com
 +  * The hostname - darkstar
 +  * The FQDN of the host - darkstar.my-domain.com
 +  * The localhost.domain variant - localhost.my-domain.com
 +
 +To see the current rows in this table using the mysql client:
 +
 +<​code>​mysql>​ SELECT * FROM virtual_domains;​
 ++----+-------------------------+
 +| id | name                    |
 ++----+-------------------------+
 +|  1 | my-domain.com ​          |
 +|  2 | darkstar ​               |
 +|  3 | darkstar.my-domain.com ​ |
 +|  4 | localhost.my-domain.com |
 ++----+-------------------------+
 +</​code>​
 +
 +Note the automatically generated id value for the domain itself, //​my-domain.com//,​ it will be used when we enter user mail boxes and mail box aliases.
 +
 +==== Adding User Mail Box Entries ====
 +To add entries for each mail box, you will need the domain id from the previous step for the corresponding domain name.
 +
 +We do not store the user passwords as plain text in the database, instead we will generate an SHA512 hash of the passwords, used by dovecot for authentication.
 +
 +To insert a virtual user mailbox from the mysql client, substitute the domain id, actual password and email into the following query:
 +<​code>​mysql>​ INSERT INTO virtual_users SET
 +id=NULL,
 +domain_id=1,​
 +password=ENCRYPT('​user-password',​ CONCAT('​$6$',​ SUBSTRING(SHA(RAND()),​ -16))),
 +email='​me@my-domain.com';​
 +</​code>​
 +
 +To see currently assigned mail boxes for a domain (with password column suppressed):​
 +<​code>​mysql>​ SELECT U.id, domain_id, email FROM virtual_domains D
 +JOIN virtual_users U ON(U.domain_id=D.id) WHERE name='​my-domain.com';​
 ++----+-----------+-------------------+
 +| id | domain_id | email             |
 ++----+-----------+-------------------+
 +|  1 |         1 | me@my-domain.com ​ |
 +|  2 |         1 | you@my-domain.com |
 +|  3 |         1 | us@my-domain.com ​ |
 ++----+-----------+-------------------+
 +</​code>​
 +
 +To reset the password for an email user, substitute the new password and email values into this query:
 +<​code>​mysql>​ UPDATE virtual_users SET
 +password=ENCRYPT('​new-password',​ CONCAT('​$6$',​ SUBSTRING(SHA(RAND()),​ -16)))
 +WHERE email='​me@my-domain.com';​
 +</​code>​
 +
 +==== Adding Mail Box Alias Entries ====
 +To add entries for each mail box alias, you will again need the domain id corresponding to the domain name of the alias.
 +
 +To insert a virtual mailbox alias using the mysql client:
 +<​code>​mysql>​ INSERT INTO virtual_aliases SET
 +id=NULL,
 +domain_id=1,​
 +source='​alias@my-domain.com',​
 +destination='​you@my-domain.com';​
 +</​code>​
 +In the example given, mail sent to alias@my-domain.com will be accepted and delivered to you@my-domain.com.
 +
 +To see current aliases in the database:
 +<​code>​mysql>​ SELECT A.id, domain_id, source, destination FROM virtual_domains D 
 +JOIN virtual_aliases A ON(A.domain_id=D.id) WHERE name='​my-domain.com';​
 ++----+-----------+---------------------+-------------------+
 +| id | domain_id | source ​             | destination ​      |
 ++----+-----------+---------------------+-------------------+
 +|  1 |         1 | alias@my-domain.com | you@my-domain.com |
 ++----+-----------+---------------------+-------------------+
 +</​code>​
 +
 +Go ahead and enter a few virtual email users, and maybe an alias or two, so that you will have working accounts to test with after we set up postfix and dovecot.
 +
 +For troubleshooting,​ use the queries shown above to verify the domains, email users and aliases in the database at any time, and to reset virtual user passwords.
 [[howtos:​network_services:​postfix_dovecot_mysql|Return to main article page]] [[howtos:​network_services:​postfix_dovecot_mysql|Return to main article page]]
-{{tag>​howtos ​template}}+====== Sources ====== 
 +  * Originally written by [[wiki:​user:​astrogeek | astrogeek]] 
 +{{tag>​howtos ​email postfix dovecot mysql}}

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