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howtos:hardware:arm:gcc-9.x_aarch64_cross-compiler [2019/07/25 19:14 (UTC)]
exaga [Sources] updated slackware arm faq link
howtos:hardware:arm:gcc-9.x_aarch64_cross-compiler [2019/08/03 12:46 (UTC)]
exaga [Building the gcc aarch64 cross-compiler] missing CFLAG
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 === Preface === === Preface ===
  
-With the recent congruous updates to [[http://arm.slackware.com|Slackware ARM]] [~24 June 2019 - "A MILLION THANKS to MoZes!"] and the surprise arrival of the Raspberry Pi 4, this just had to be done. Creating a gcc-9.1.0 armv8 arm64 aarch64 cross-compiler with the intention of building aarch64-linux binaries from source code and turning them into Slackware packages. +With the recent congruous updates to [[http://arm.slackware.com|Slackware ARM]] [~24 June 2019 - "A MILLION THANKS to MoZes!"] and the surprise arrival of the Raspberry Pi 4, this just had to be done. Creating a 64-bit gcc-9.1.0 arm64 aarch64 cross-compiler with the intention of building aarch64-linux binaries from source code and turning them into Slackware packages. 
  
-Previous [[howtos:hardware:arm:gcc_aarch64_cross-compiler|work in this area]] had already been done in 2016/2017. However, this time we'll be compiling with gcc-9.1.0 and not gcc-5.4.0 and we'll be using a Raspberry Pi 4 Model B and not a Mk3 version. The old build scripts weren't totally useless and some of the code was reused for this project, to save time.+Previous [[howtos:hardware:arm:gcc_aarch64_cross-compiler|work in this area]] had already been done since 2016/2017. However, this time we'll be compiling with gcc-9.1.0 and not gcc-5.4.0 and we'll be using a Raspberry Pi 4 Model B and not a Mk3 version. The old build scripts weren't totally useless and some of the code was reused for this project, to save time.
  
 === Notes === === Notes ===
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 When that's done you should see a message that 'origin/rpi-5.2.y' is the current branch. When that's done you should see a message that 'origin/rpi-5.2.y' is the current branch.
 +
 +<note tip>You can select which kernel source you would like to build instead of rpi-5.2.y branch. Just substitute it in the 'git checkout -f rpi-5.2.y' command for your chosen branch. To see a list of available branches use this command while in your Linux source directory:
 +
 +<code>
 +git branch -a
 +</code></note>
 +
 +
  
 === Downloading required package source === === Downloading required package source ===
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 Before downloading the package source needed to build the gcc cross-compiler, be aware that more recent package versions may exist than the ones shown here. You may wish to install newer versions. It's always a good idea to check. To keep things simple, you might consider downloading a version of gcc which matches the one you currently have installed. I've read lots of articles about this and most advise to install the //latest and greatest// version of gcc available. However, if you're running Slackware ARM current you'll have gcc-9.1.0 installed and this is adequate for what you need. Before downloading the package source needed to build the gcc cross-compiler, be aware that more recent package versions may exist than the ones shown here. You may wish to install newer versions. It's always a good idea to check. To keep things simple, you might consider downloading a version of gcc which matches the one you currently have installed. I've read lots of articles about this and most advise to install the //latest and greatest// version of gcc available. However, if you're running Slackware ARM current you'll have gcc-9.1.0 installed and this is adequate for what you need.
  
-So, first move back into the 'build-dir' directory and then download the packages below.+So, first move back into the 'BUILD' directory and then download the packages below.
  
 <code> <code>
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 === Exporting install directory PATH === === Exporting install directory PATH ===
  
-You need to export the installation directory's /bin folder to your user's $PATH. the PATH of your gcc-9.1.0 cross-compiler bin needs to be the FIRST item in the $PATH in order to be successful.+You need to export the installation directory''/binfolder to your user's $PATH. The PATH of your gcc-9.1.0 cross-compiler bin needs to be the __FIRST__ item in the $PATH in order to be successful.
  
 <code> <code>
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 /tmp/.gcc-cross/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/lib/kde4/libexec:/usr/lib/qt/bin /tmp/.gcc-cross/bin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/lib/kde4/libexec:/usr/lib/qt/bin
 </code> </code>
 +
 +NB: your $PATH may be very different from the one shown above, but that doesn't matter. As long as the PATH to your gcc cross-compiler's '/bin' directory is the first item in the $PATH it's all good.
  
 ==== Building the gcc aarch64 cross-compiler ==== ==== Building the gcc aarch64 cross-compiler ====
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 === Building binutils === === Building binutils ===
  
-First move back into the 'build-dir' directory and then create a build directory for binutils. You'll notice the various build options but as a quick explanation; '--with-sysroot' basically tells binutils to enable 'sysroot' support in the cross-compiler by pointing it to a default empty directory, '--target=aarch64-linux' is the target system type (arm64), and '--disable-multilib' means that we only want binutils to work with the aarch64 instruction set and nothing else. +First move back into the 'BUILD' directory and then create a build directory for binutils. You'll notice the various CFLAGS but as a quick explanation; '--with-sysroot' basically tells binutils to enable 'sysroot' support in the cross-compiler by pointing it to a default empty directory, '--target=aarch64-linux' is the target system type (arm64), and '--disable-multilib' means that we only want binutils to work with the aarch64 instruction set and nothing else. 
  
 <code> <code>
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 mkdir build-binutils mkdir build-binutils
 cd build-binutils cd build-binutils
-../binutils-2.32/configure --prefix=/tmp/.gcc-cross --target=aarch64-linux --disable-multilib+../binutils-2.32/configure --prefix=/tmp/.gcc-cross --target=aarch64-linux --with-sysroot --disable-multilib
 make -j4  make -j4 
 make install make install
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 === Build gcc C and C++ cross-compilers === === Build gcc C and C++ cross-compilers ===
  
-First move into the 'build-dir' directory and create a build directory for gcc before building it. Notice that only C and C++ have been specified as build languages. That's all you will need here. Incidentally, the available build language options allow just one, or a selection, or all, of the following '--enable-languages=all,ada,c,c++,fortran,go,jit,lto,objc,obj-c++'.+First move into the 'BUILD' directory and create a build directory for gcc before building it. Notice that only C and C++ have been specified as build languages. That's all you will need here. Incidentally, the available build language options allow just one, or a selection, or all, of the following '--enable-languages=all,ada,c,c++,fortran,go,jit,lto,objc,obj-c++'.
  
 <code> <code>
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 === Build and install glibc === === Build and install glibc ===
  
-First move into the 'build-dir' directory and create a 'build-glibc' directory. Then move into the 'build-glibc' directory before building it. '--build=$MACHTYPE' is a predefined environment variable which describes the Raspberry Pi 4 (in this case) and it's required to compile some additional tools which are utilised during the build process. Notice that you're installing the C library startup files to the installation directory (csu/crt1.o, csu/crti.o, and csu/crtn.o) separately because there doesn’t seem to a 'make' rule that does this without creating other problems.+First move into the 'BUILD' directory and create a 'build-glibc' directory. Then move into the 'build-glibc' directory before building it. '--build=$MACHTYPE' is a predefined environment variable which describes the Raspberry Pi 4 (in this case) and it's required to compile some additional tools which are utilised during the build process. Notice that you're installing the C library startup files to the installation directory (csu/crt1.o, csu/crti.o, and csu/crtn.o) separately because there doesn’t seem to a 'make' rule that does this without creating other problems.
  
 <code> <code>
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 ==== Building the arm64 kernel, modules, and device tree blob (DTB) ==== ==== Building the arm64 kernel, modules, and device tree blob (DTB) ====
  
-To build the aarch64 kernel, modules and device tree blob(s) is exactly the same method as you would carry it out under normal circumstances. Commands such as 'make bzImage && make modules && make modules_install' may be all too familiar to you. The major difference when cross-compiling is that you'll use certain Makefile options/variables/arguments/switches, commonly known as CFLAGS. In our case, CFLAGS will be used to instruct the gcc cross-compiler to build for the aarch64 (arm64) architecture specifically.+To build the aarch64 kernel, modules and device tree blob(s) is exactly the same method as you would carry it out under normal circumstances. Commands such as 'make bzImage && make modules && make modules_install' may be all too familiar to you. The major difference when cross-compiling is that you'll use certain Makefile variables/arguments/switches, commonly known as //build options//<. In our case, //build options// will be used to instruct the gcc cross-compiler to build for the aarch64 (arm64) architecture specifically.
  
 === Creating the arm64 kernel .config === === Creating the arm64 kernel .config ===
  
-First of all, as always, you need to be in the Raspberry Pi Linux kernel source directory which is in the 'build-dirfolder. Then you need to create a kernel .config file, based on Raspberry Pi 4 parameters. To keep it simple you can generate a default .config (**defconfig**) file. This file holds the Linux kernel configuration for the arm64 kernel you are going to build. To achieve this run the following commands:+First of all, as always, you need to be in the Raspberry Pi Linux kernel source directory which is within your 'BUILDdirectory. Then you need to create a kernel .config file, based on Raspberry Pi 4 parameters. To keep it simple you can generate a default .config (**defconfig**) file. This file holds the Linux kernel configuration for the arm64 kernel you are going to build. To achieve this run the following commands:
  
 <code> <code>
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 </code> </code>
  
-<note important>Make a note here of the CFLAGS which have been specified. They should be self-explanatory by now. Pay special attention to the trailing '-' of 'CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-' because that's **NOT** a typo. __It needs to be like that!__</note>+<note important>Make a note here of the //build options// [ARCH=arm64 CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-] which have been specified. They should be self-explanatory by now. Pay special attention to the trailing '-' of 'CROSS_COMPILE=aarch64-linux-' because that's **NOT** a typo. __It needs to be like that!__</note>
  
 Now that you've created a kernel .config which contains the default settings for your hardware, some settings within need to be checked and possibly modified. The Raspberry Pi 4's "VideoCore VI" GPU is not //64-bit compatible// and the build process will crash each time you attempt to compile the module's source code for ARMv8 architecture. Now that you've created a kernel .config which contains the default settings for your hardware, some settings within need to be checked and possibly modified. The Raspberry Pi 4's "VideoCore VI" GPU is not //64-bit compatible// and the build process will crash each time you attempt to compile the module's source code for ARMv8 architecture.
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 === Building the arm64 kernel === === Building the arm64 kernel ===
  
-Next up is building the kernel, based on the .config file you have just created. Again, you'll use the same CFLAGS as before. You can even set a 'LOCALVERSION' here which appends whatever you set to the end of the kernel version (e.g. LOCALVERSION="-aarch64" would eventually give you 5.2.1-v8-aarch64) once the kernel and modules have been built. Just as an example we'll use it here. Run the following command to start building the arm64 Linux kernel:+Next up is building the kernel, based on the .config file you have just created. Again, you'll use the same //build options// as before. You can even set a 'LOCALVERSION' here which appends whatever you set to the end of the kernel version (e.g. LOCALVERSION="-aarch64" would eventually give you 5.2.1-v8-aarch64) once the kernel and modules have been built. Just as an example we'll use it here. Run the following command to start building the arm64 Linux kernel:
  
 <code> <code>
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 === Installing the arm64 modules === === Installing the arm64 modules ===
  
-Once the modules have been built, you have to 'make modules_install' The process will install your kernel modules to '/tmp/lib/modules/5.2.1-v8-aarch64'+Once the modules have been built, you have to 'make modules_install' The process will install your kernel modules to '/lib/modules/5.2.1-v8-aarch64'
  
-You could build  //out-of-tree// kernel modules but, to keep things simple, you're going to install them to the usual location. Again, you will use the same CFLAGS as before but without any 'LOCALVERSION' set.+You could build  //out-of-tree// kernel modules but, to keep things simple, you're going to install them to the usual location. Again, you will use the same //build options// as before but without any 'LOCALVERSION' set.
  
 First you need become '**root**' user and enter a passwd when prompted. To install the aarch64 modules run the following commands: First you need become '**root**' user and enter a passwd when prompted. To install the aarch64 modules run the following commands:
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 <code> <code>
 ls -lah rpi-boot/boot/kernel* ls -lah rpi-boot/boot/kernel*
-ls -lah rpi-boot/boot/bcm*-rpi-3-b.dtb +ls -lah rpi-boot/boot/bcm*-rpi-4-b.dtb 
 ls -lah rpi-root/lib/modules/5.2.1-v8* ls -lah rpi-root/lib/modules/5.2.1-v8*
 </code> </code>
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 ====== Sources ====== ====== Sources ======
-# If you need to install any of the packages above [* check for updates!]:+# If you need to install any of the software above [* check for updates!]:
  
 [[ftp://ftp.arm.slackware.com/slackwarearm/slackwarearm-current/slackware/a/gawk-5.0.1-arm-1.txz]]  # Slackware ARM current - gawk package. \\ [[ftp://ftp.arm.slackware.com/slackwarearm/slackwarearm-current/slackware/a/gawk-5.0.1-arm-1.txz]]  # Slackware ARM current - gawk package. \\
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 [[slackwarearm:faq|http://arm.slackware.com/FAQs]] # Slackware ARM Linux Project Frequently Asked Questions. \\  [[slackwarearm:faq|http://arm.slackware.com/FAQs]] # Slackware ARM Linux Project Frequently Asked Questions. \\ 
 [[http://wiki.osdev.org/GCC_Cross-Compiler]] # gcc cross-compiler documentation. \\  [[http://wiki.osdev.org/GCC_Cross-Compiler]] # gcc cross-compiler documentation. \\ 
 +[[howtos:hardware:arm:gcc_aarch64_cross-compiler|Slackware ARM GCC aarch64-linux cross-compiler]] for the Raspberry Pi. \\
 [[https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/linux/kernel]] # Raspberry Pi Linux kernel documentation. \\  [[https://www.raspberrypi.org/documentation/linux/kernel]] # Raspberry Pi Linux kernel documentation. \\ 
  

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