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howtos:general_admin:openrc [2018/09/09 18:30 (UTC)]
aaditya minor corrections + update service repo link
howtos:general_admin:openrc [2018/11/30 19:09 (UTC)]
aaditya sysconfdir has been changed to /etc/openrc
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 ====== OpenRC ====== ====== OpenRC ======
  
-OpenRC is a dependency based init system ​that works with the system provided init program, normally ///​sbin/​init// ​(which is svsvinit in Slackware). It is not a replacement for /sbin/init.+OpenRC is a dependency based service management ​system. It works with the system provided init program, normally ///​sbin/​init//​.
  
-====== Features ​======+===== Features =====
  
-OpenRC provides a number of features ​touted as innovative by recent init systems ​like systemd or upstart, such as hardware initiated initscript run or cgroups support, without requiring large layout changes ​to accommodate radically different designs and dependencies.+OpenRC provides a number of features like hardware initiated initscript run and cgroups support, without requiring large layout changes.
  
 ====== Installation ====== ====== Installation ======
  
-===== Pre installation =====+Two [[slackware:​slackbuild_scripts|Slackbuilds]] are available, [[http://​slackbuilds.org/​repository/​14.2/​system/​openrc/​|openrc]],​ which contains the OpenRC init system, and [[http://​slackbuilds.org/​repository/​14.2/​system/​openrc-services/​|openrc-services]],​ which contains various services for use with OpenRC.
  
-The /etc/init.d directory (a symlink to ///​etc/​rc.d/​init.d//​) will need to be moved: +===== Post installation =====
-  # mv /etc/init.d /​etc/​init.d.bak+
  
-===== Installing =====+After installation,​ some steps are needed to boot with OpenRC.
  
-Two [[slackware:​slackbuild_scripts|Slackbuilds]] are available, [[http://​slackbuilds.org/​repository/​14.2/​system/​openrc/​|openrc]],​ which contains ​the OpenRC init system, and [[http://​slackbuilds.org/​repository/​14.2/​system/​openrc-services/​|openrc-services]],​ which contains various services for use with OpenRC.+=== Setup the agetty ​services ​===
  
-===== Post installation =====+  # main tty 
 +  ln -s /​etc/​openrc/​init.d/​agetty /​etc/​openrc/​init.d/​agetty.tty1 
 +  /​sbin/​rc-update add agetty.tty1 default 
 +     
 +  cp /​etc/​openrc/​conf.d/​agetty /​etc/​openrc/​conf.d/​agetty.tty1 
 +  echo '​agetty_options="​--noclear"'​ >> /​etc/​openrc/​conf.d/​agetty.tty1 
 +   
 +  # additional ttys 
 +  for i in {2..6}; do 
 +    ln -s /​etc/​openrc/​init.d/​agetty /​etc/​openrc/​init.d/​agetty.tty${i} 
 +    /​sbin/​rc-update add agetty.tty${i} default 
 +  done 
 +   
 +  # serial tty (for servers) 
 +  ln -s /​etc/​openrc/​init.d/​agetty /​etc/​openrc/​init.d/​agetty.ttyS0 
 +  /​sbin/​rc-update add agetty.ttyS0 default 
 +   
 +  cp /​etc/​openrc/​conf.d/​agetty /​etc/​openrc/​conf.d/​agetty.ttyS0 
 +  echo '​agetty_options="​--noclear"'​ >> /​etc/​openrc/​conf.d/​agetty.ttyS0 
 + 
 +=== Update boot parameters ​=== 
 + 
 +Add the following to your boot parameters (via ///​etc/​lilo.conf//​ for lilo or ///​etc/​default/​grub//​ for grub): 
 +  init=/​sbin/​openrc-init 
 + 
 +Regenerate boot configuration ('lilo -v' or '​grub-mkconfig -o /​boot/​grub/​grub.cfg'​).
  
-After installing, ///​etc/​inittab//​ will need to be replaced. The old one can be backed up: +=== Enable boot logging ===
-  # cp /​etc/​inittab /​etc/​inittab.sysvinit +
-  # mv /​etc/​inittab.new /​etc/​inittab+
  
-The main configuration file for OpenRC is ///​etc/​rc.conf//,​ and contains various options.+The main configuration file for OpenRC is ///etc/openrc/rc.conf//, and contains various options.
  
 A common option that could be changed is to enable boot logging by setting ''​rc_logger="​YES"'',​ this way any errors encountered via booting could be logged and examined later (default log location is ///​var/​log/​rc.log//​). A common option that could be changed is to enable boot logging by setting ''​rc_logger="​YES"'',​ this way any errors encountered via booting could be logged and examined later (default log location is ///​var/​log/​rc.log//​).
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 ===== On reboot ===== ===== On reboot =====
  
-After installing openrc and openrc-services,​ on rebooting one is booted to a command line with only the bare minimum of services enabled.+On rebootingone is booted to a command line with only the bare minimum of services enabled.
  
 It may show a warning about deprecated support for ///​etc/​mtab//​ as a file, and how to correct it: It may show a warning about deprecated support for ///​etc/​mtab//​ as a file, and how to correct it:
-  # cp /etc/mtab /etc/mtab.bak+  # cp /etc/mtab /etc/mtab.bkp
   # ln -snf /​proc/​self/​mounts /etc/mtab   # ln -snf /​proc/​self/​mounts /etc/mtab
   ​   ​
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 If using wifi with laptops the **NetworkManager** or **wicd** service could be enabled. The combination of dhcpcd and wpa_supplicant (along with a frontend like wpa_gui or wpa_cli) could also be used as a lightweight alternative. If using wifi with laptops the **NetworkManager** or **wicd** service could be enabled. The combination of dhcpcd and wpa_supplicant (along with a frontend like wpa_gui or wpa_cli) could also be used as a lightweight alternative.
  
-A static network can be configured by editing ///​etc/​conf.d/​network//​.+A static network can be configured by editing ///etc/openrc/​conf.d/​network//​.
  
 === Display manager === === Display manager ===
  
-To boot to a graphical display manager, ///​etc/​conf.d/​xdm//​ can be edited to specify the display manager, and the xdm service could be enabled:+To boot to a graphical display manager, ///etc/openrc/​conf.d/​xdm//​ can be edited to specify the display manager, and the xdm service could be enabled:
  
   # rc-update add xdm default   # rc-update add xdm default
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 ====== Configuration ====== ====== Configuration ======
  
-OpenRC services are present in the ///​etc/​init.d//​ folder, and corresponding configuration files are present in ///​etc/​conf.d//​+OpenRC services are present in the ///etc/openrc/init.d// folder, and corresponding configuration files are present in ///etc/openrc/conf.d//
  
 Some common configuration files include: Some common configuration files include:
  
-  /​etc/​conf.d/​modules ​   # modules to be loaded at boot +  /etc/openrc/​conf.d/​modules ​   # modules to be loaded at boot 
-  /​etc/​conf.d/​hostname ​  # hostname of the system +  /etc/openrc/​conf.d/​hostname ​  # hostname of the system 
-  /​etc/​conf.d/​keymaps ​   # console keymap+  /etc/openrc/​conf.d/​keymaps ​   # console keymap
  
-===== Services ​=====+===== Service management ​=====
  
 Services can be started/​stopped/​restarted as: Services can be started/​stopped/​restarted as:
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   # rc-service sshd start   # rc-service sshd start
 +
 +  ​
 +===== Shutdown/​reboot =====
 +
 +To shutdown or reboot, one will need to use **openrc-shutdown**. To shutdown from a desktop environment using ConsoleKit2,​ check out this [[https://​github.com/​ConsoleKit2/​ConsoleKit2/​pull/​113|PR]].
  
 ====== Troubleshooting ====== ====== Troubleshooting ======
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   socket = /​var/​run/​mysql/​mysql.sock   socket = /​var/​run/​mysql/​mysql.sock
  
 +==== Dealing with crashed services ====
 +
 +Sometimes openrc reports a service'​s status as "​crashed"​. The process may have died or its pid file disappeared/​changed.
 +
 +If one tries to start a crashed service, `rc-service` reports:
 +
 +  * WARNING: <​service>​ has already been started
 +
 +So one tries to stop it before starting again.
 +
 +However in some situations, the service does not stop. This leads to a deadlock where one can neither stop the service nor start it. For such cases:
 +
 +  # rc-service <​service>​ zap
 +  * Manually resetting <​service>​ to stopped state
 +
 +**zap** resets the service state, allowing us to start it again.
 +
 +===== openrc-init =====
 +
 +Since version **0.25**, openrc provides //​openrc-init//​ which can be used to boot the system.
 +
 +This allows switching between OpenRC and other init systems, for example sysvinit, just by changing boot parameters.
 +
 +For more info, check out the [[https://​wiki.gentoo.org/​wiki/​OpenRC#​openrc-init|Gentoo wiki]].
 +
 +===== Migrating from /etc/init.d to /​etc/​openrc/​init.d =====
 +
 +OpenRC 0.39+, as shipped via SBo, changes the service and configuration directory to ///​etc/​openrc//​ instead of ///etc//.
 +
 +This is being done to maintain greater compatibility with a vanilla Slackware install.
 +
 +Existing services will need to be migrated, details below on how it can be done.
 +
 +=== 1. Install openrc-0.39.2 and openrc-services-20181107 ===
 +
 +These packages ship the configuration and service files in ///​etc/​openrc//​.
 +
 +=== 2. Migrate existing services ===
 +
 +This involves 4 steps:
 +
 +  # migrate existing services
 +  for service in /​etc/​init.d/​*;​ do
 +    svcname=$(basename "​$service"​)
 +    if [ ! -e "/​etc/​openrc/​init.d/​${svcname}"​ ]; then
 +      if [ -f "/​etc/​init.d/​${svcname}"​ ] && grep -q openrc "/​etc/​init.d/​${svcname}";​ then
 +        cp -v "/​etc/​init.d/​${svcname}"​ "/​etc/​openrc/​init.d/​${svcname}"​
 +      elif [ -L "/​etc/​init.d/​${svcname}"​ ]; then
 +        # check if symlink is of a service
 +        service_target=$(readlink -f "​$service"​)
 +        service_target_name=$(basename "​$service_target"​)
 +        if [ $(dirname "​$service_target"​) = "/​etc/​init.d"​ ]; then
 +          ln -sv "/​etc/​openrc/​init.d/​${service_target_name}"​ "/​etc/​openrc/​init.d/​${svcname}"​
 +        fi
 +      fi
 +    fi
 +  done
 +  ​
 +  # enable existing services
 +  for runlevel in /​etc/​runlevels/​*;​ do
 +    for service in ${runlevel}/​*;​ do
 +      svcname=$(basename "​$service"​)
 +      rvlname=$(basename "​$runlevel"​)
 +      if [ ! -e /​etc/​openrc/​runlevels/​${rvlname}/​${svcname} ] && [ -e /​etc/​openrc/​init.d/​${svcname} ]; then
 +        ln -sv /​etc/​openrc/​init.d/​${svcname} /​etc/​openrc/​runlevels/​${rvlname}/​${svcname}
 +      fi
 +    done
 +  done
 +  ​
 +  # check config changes
 +  for file in /​etc/​conf.d/​*;​ do
 +    filename=$(basename "​$file"​)
 +    extension="​${filename##​*.}"​
 +    if [ "​$extension"​ = orig ] || [ "​$extension"​ == new ]; then
 +      continue ​ # dont need to check extra
 +    fi
 +    if [ -e "/​etc/​conf.d/​${filename}"​ ] && [ -e "/​etc/​openrc/​conf.d/​${filename}"​ ]; then
 +      diff -Nupr "/​etc/​conf.d/​${filename}"​ "/​etc/​openrc/​conf.d/​${filename}"​
 +    fi
 +  done
 +  # main config file
 +  diff -Nupr /​etc/​rc.conf /​etc/​openrc/​rc.conf
 +  ​
 +  # check local.d changes
 +  for file in /​etc/​local.d/​*;​ do
 +    filename=$(basename "​$file"​)
 +    if [ ! -e "/​etc/​openrc/​local.d/​${filename}"​ ]; then
 +      cp -v "/​etc/​local.d/​${filename}"​ "/​etc/​openrc/​local.d/​${filename}"​
 +    elif [ -e "/​etc/​local.d/​${filename}"​ ] && [ -e "/​etc/​openrc/​local.d/​${filename}"​ ]; then
 +      # show changes
 +      diff -Nupr "/​etc/​local.d/​${filename}"​ "/​etc/​openrc/​local.d/​${filename}"​
 +    fi
 +  done
 +
 +Config changes found above can be updated by hand or copy pasted in new location.
 +
 +=== 3. Check and reboot ===
 +
 +Verify if ''​rc-status''​ is showing all services (it may show them as stopped).
 +
 +Reboot and check whether things are working expected, make changes as necessary.
 +
 +The old files and folders can be renamed (or removed).
 +
 +  mv /etc/init.d /​etc/​init.d-openrc-bkp
 +  mv /etc/conf.d /​etc/​conf.d-openrc-bkp
 +  mv /​etc/​local.d /​etc/​local.d-openrc-bkp
 +  mv /​etc/​runlevels /​etc/​runlevels-openrc-bkp
 +  mv /​etc/​rc.conf /​etc/​rc.conf-openrc.bkp
 +
 +Finally, any changes done to the default Slackware system can be reverted:
 +
 +  mv /​etc/​init.d-bkp /etc/init.d
  
 ====== See Also ====== ====== See Also ======
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 [[https://​github.com/​OpenRC/​openrc/​|Github]] [[https://​github.com/​OpenRC/​openrc/​|Github]]
 +
 +[[https://​github.com/​OpenRC/​openrc/​blob/​master/​user-guide.md|User guide]]
  
 [[https://​www.linuxquestions.org/​questions/​slackware-14/​using-openrc-on-slackware-4175542567/​|LQ thread]] [[https://​www.linuxquestions.org/​questions/​slackware-14/​using-openrc-on-slackware-4175542567/​|LQ thread]]

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