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howtos:cloud:aws_ec2 [2020/07/07 00:53 (UTC)]
bifferos [Security]
howtos:cloud:aws_ec2 [2020/07/07 00:59 (UTC)] (current)
bifferos [Disk Formats]
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 A quick word about security.  We will not be making use of the service provided by AWS which furnishes your instance with key pairs, because we won't be installing the [[https://github.com/aws/amazon-ssm-agent|agent process]] that does that.  This saves a bit of time for unsupported operating systems like Slackware, but it means you need to sort out how to get access to your instance after it starts.  I strongly suggest you  A quick word about security.  We will not be making use of the service provided by AWS which furnishes your instance with key pairs, because we won't be installing the [[https://github.com/aws/amazon-ssm-agent|agent process]] that does that.  This saves a bit of time for unsupported operating systems like Slackware, but it means you need to sort out how to get access to your instance after it starts.  I strongly suggest you 
  
-  - Upload a public key to the account you'll use to access your instance, e.g. with ssh-copy-id. +  - Upload a public key to the account you'll use to access your instance, e.g. with [[https://www.ssh.com/ssh/copy-id|ssh-copy-id]]
-  - Ensure that ssh is configured to only use key access (PermitRootLogin=prohibit-password), which I believe is the default.+  - Ensure that ssh is configured to only use key access ([[https://man.openbsd.org/sshd_config#PermitRootLogin|PermitRootLogin=prohibit-password]]), which I believe is the default.
   - Reboot and ensure you still have access using your private key.   - Reboot and ensure you still have access using your private key.
   - Double-check that you cannot login using the password that would normally work on the VM console for your user.   - Double-check that you cannot login using the password that would normally work on the VM console for your user.
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 Stream optimised VMDK is the most efficient way to upload your image.  This is the VMDK format created when you export to OVF format from VMWare and you will notice it’s much more compressed than normal VMDK files.  Don’t upload a standard VMDK file, it won’t work and you’ll waste your time.  Also, don’t try to generate stream-optimised VMDK using any open-source utilities.  None of them seem to work properly.  If you don’t own a VMWare product with the ‘export to OVF’ option, you could try OVFTool.  This is a free download from VMWare for registered users, and will take a VMWare VM directory as input.  I’m unsure if it requires a registered copy of VMWare to run but it will expect the .VMX and possibly other files which you’ll have to generate somehow to keep it happy if you're not actually using VMWare.  When the OVF directory is generated it will be generated containing several files.  You can discard all but the .VMDK. Stream optimised VMDK is the most efficient way to upload your image.  This is the VMDK format created when you export to OVF format from VMWare and you will notice it’s much more compressed than normal VMDK files.  Don’t upload a standard VMDK file, it won’t work and you’ll waste your time.  Also, don’t try to generate stream-optimised VMDK using any open-source utilities.  None of them seem to work properly.  If you don’t own a VMWare product with the ‘export to OVF’ option, you could try OVFTool.  This is a free download from VMWare for registered users, and will take a VMWare VM directory as input.  I’m unsure if it requires a registered copy of VMWare to run but it will expect the .VMX and possibly other files which you’ll have to generate somehow to keep it happy if you're not actually using VMWare.  When the OVF directory is generated it will be generated containing several files.  You can discard all but the .VMDK.
 +
 +<note tip>Ensure you've shutdown VMWare completely and removed any DVD-ROMs from the VM before exporting to OVF or it may fail with a cryptic (e.g. useless) error message as is typical from VMWare.</note>
  
 If you don't have VMWare, and/or don't want to use OVFTool then you should consider .VHD format.  This format was used by the ancient Microsoft emulator called VirtualPC, and latterly HyperV.  qemu-img will happily generate one of these when you specify the ‘vpc’ output format.  VHD is more verbose than stream-optimised VMDK and will end up about double the size, so double the upload time, and higher S3 charges while importing (not that they will amount to much).  You can also use VHDX format as AWS also supports that but there is little point as the generated files are even larger than VHD to contain the same information. If you don't have VMWare, and/or don't want to use OVFTool then you should consider .VHD format.  This format was used by the ancient Microsoft emulator called VirtualPC, and latterly HyperV.  qemu-img will happily generate one of these when you specify the ‘vpc’ output format.  VHD is more verbose than stream-optimised VMDK and will end up about double the size, so double the upload time, and higher S3 charges while importing (not that they will amount to much).  You can also use VHDX format as AWS also supports that but there is little point as the generated files are even larger than VHD to contain the same information.

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