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Construcciones de CLI (Interfaz de línea de comandos) e información útil

El propósito de este artículo no es ser un tutorial de CLI, sino más bien ser una exposición de construcciones comunes utilizadas en shell scripting para lograr un objetivo de manera eficiente. También hay secciones que simplemente ayudan a entender un tema determinado.

Construye

rev | cut | rev

A menudo es útil revertir una cadena y luego usar cut. Por ejemplo, tome un paquete Slackware y obtenga su nombre:

echo dejavu-fonts-ttf-2.33-noarch-1 | rev | cut -d - -f 1-3 --complement | rev
ls -1 /var/log/packages | rev | cut -d - -f 1-3 --complement | rev

O si desea obtener la ruta completa de un archivo, menos el sufijo.

echo /proc/config.gz | rev | cut -d. -f1 --complement | rev

Reemplazar un sufijo

Digamos que querías hacer un script de conversión de video y que necesitabas cambiar el sufijo.

input=test.mkv
output="$(basename "$input" .mkv).avi"

find | xargs

Esta es una interacción especial entre find y xargs que permite tratar espacios en los nombres de archivos. Es muy rápido porque muchos comandos como rm , rmdir y shred toman múltiples entradas de archivos en la línea de comandos. Una construcción genérica es algo como:

find . -type f -print0 | xargs -0 "$command"

Puede reemplazar $ command con cualquier comando que necesite para ejecutar en los archivos siempre que sea compatible con la entrada de múltiples archivos. Si tiene una lista de archivos, aún puede conservar espacios:

tr '\n' '\0' < "$file" | xargs -0 "$command"

comm antes y después

Esta construcción es útil para aplicaciones de gestión de paquetes. Desde la página de manual de comm:

With  no  options,  produce  three-column  output.
Column one contains lines unique to FILE1, 
column two contains lines unique to FILE2, and
column three contains lines common to both files.

Las opciones '-1' '-2' '-3' suprimen las columnas respectivas. Supongamos que desea registrar los archivos que se agregaron a /usr después de ejecutar el comando $ 1 :

# before, make install, after
find /usr > "$tmp/before"
$1
find /usr > "$tmp/after"
 
# sort
sort "$tmp/before" > "$tmp/before-sorted"
sort "$tmp/after" > "$tmp/after-sorted"
 
# create log
comm -13 "$tmp/before-sorted" "$tmp/after-sorted" > "$log/$name"

Tenga en cuenta que comm requiere archivos ordenados. Aquí -1 suprime las líneas exclusivas de antes, -3 suprime las líneas presentes en ambos archivos, por lo que queda con la columna 2 que contiene archivos exclusivos después de los archivos agregados. A muchas personas les gustaría usar diff para comparar archivos, pero es principalmente para crear parches.

while read line

This construct is common and is useful for reading files or stdin one line at a time. Here is an example that can be used to concatenate split files in order:

base="$(echo "$@" | rev | cut -d. -f1 --complement | rev)"
 
ls -1 "$base".* | sort -V | while read line
do
	cat "$line" >> "$base"
done

Also note that sort -V is a version sort and is useful in cases where ls sorts suffixes incorrectly. The usual way to prevent this is to name numbered suffixes with 0 padding like file.001, but it may overflow and this is why sort -V is useful.

for i in

Here is an example for extracting all rpms in a directory:

for i in *.rpm
do
	rpm2cpio "$i" | cpio -id --quiet
done

You can also use seq to make i a loop counter:

for i in $(seq 1 100)
do 
	echo "$i"
done

Note that there are no quotes around $(seq) because otherwise it would quote the entire expanded number sequence and that wouldn't work right.

Quoting

Quoting may seem complicated, and reasons for it obscure, but there is a purpose to it and it is not that complicated.

Double quoting

The reason for double quoting is to preserve spaces, like spaces in file names. Double quoting a variable or command substitution makes it into a single argument. An example:

bash-4.2$ ls
file with spaces.txt  filewithoutspaces.txt
bash-4.2$ rm -f file with spaces.txt
bash-4.2$ ls
file with spaces.txt  filewithoutspaces.txt
bash-4.2$ rm -f "file with spaces.txt"
bash-4.2$ ls
filewithoutspaces.txt
bash-4.2$ rm -f filewithoutspaces.txt 
bash-4.2$ ls
bash-4.2$ 

Clearly you need to quote a file with spaces. You could use single quotes here, because no variables were inside the quotes. You should not quote in this case:

bash-4.2$ for i in $(seq 1 10); do printf "$i "; done; echo;  
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 
bash-4.2$ for i in "$(seq 1 10)"; do printf "$i "; done; echo;
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 
bash-4.2$ 

Nor should you quote in any case where a command requires multiple variables and you give them to it inside one quoted variable. A quoted variable is then taken as the only argument, rather than multiple arguments. An example:

bash-4.2$ ls
file with spaces.txt  filewithoutspaces.txt
bash-4.2$ file1="file with spaces.txt"
bash-4.2$ file2="filewithoutspaces.txt"
bash-4.2$ rm -f "$file1 $file2"
bash-4.2$ ls
file with spaces.txt  filewithoutspaces.txt
bash-4.2$ rm -f "$file1" "$file2"
bash-4.2$ ls
bash-4.2$ 

Also note that you can and should quote within command substitutions, as shown by the replace a suffix example above and:

mkdir "$(basename "$(pwd)")"

This makes a directory within the current directory called the same name as the current directory. If pwd expands into something with spaces, the command will work.

Single quoting

The reason for single quoting is to escape special characters from the shell, while passing them to a command so it can use them. You should use single quotes for every argument passed to another program that contains shell characters to be interpreted by that program and NOT by the shell. Example:

bash-4.2$ find -name *.txt
./list.txt
bash-4.2$ find -name '*.txt'
./list.txt
./results/002.txt
./results/006.txt
./results/013.txt
./results/wipe.txt
bash-4.2$ 

Here the shell expands * before find sees it. You should single quote input to awk, find, sed, and grep, as each of these uses special characters that overlap with the shells', and thus they must be protected from shell expansion.

External Links

Regular expressions

Basic

  • . matches any single character.
  • \ escapes the next character.
Remember to escape the . using \. if you want an actual .
bash-4.2$ cat test.txt 
testtxt
test.txt
bash-4.2$ sed 's/.txt//g' test.txt 
tes
test
bash-4.2$ sed 's/\.txt//g' test.txt 
testtxt
test
  • [] is a class and matches anything inside the brakets for a single character. Examples:
    • [Yy] matches Y or y.
    • [a-z0-9] includes a range, and in this case matches a through z and 0 through 9.
    • [^a-z] negates the range, so in this case it matches anything but a through z.
  • ^ matches the beginning of a line. Example: ^a matches an a at the beginning of a line.
  • $ matches the end of a line. Example: a$ matches an a at the end of a line.
  • \< matches the beginning of a word. Example: \<a matches an a at the beginning of a word.
  • \> matches the end of a word. Example: a\> matches an a at the end of a word.
    • Example: \<[tT]he\> matches the word the or The.
  • * matches any number of the previous character or nothing = no character. Example: [0-9]* which will match any number of numbers. .* matches any number of anything.

Extended regular expressions

The following must be supported by the program for them to work. For example for grep you must run egrep or grep -E.

  • + matches any number of the previous character, like *, but there must be at least one to match, so it will not match nothing or no character.
  • ? makes the previous character optional (it can be missing), and is matched at most once.
  • (|) acts like an OR statement. Example: (it|her|this) matches any of those words.
  • a{3} matches aaa = 3 a's.
  • a{4,8} matches an a at least 4 times and at max 8 times, so aaaa, aaaaa, aaaaaa, aaaaaaa, and aaaaaaaa.
  • {0,} = *
  • {1,} = +
  • {,1} = ?

External Links

Useful commands and info

stat

Stat is the most accurate way to determine:

  • File size in bytes:
    stat -c '%s' file.txt
  • File permissions in octal:
    stat -c '%a' file.txt

awk variable defaults

An important point is that awk variables are set to zero by default. This may cause problems in some situtations. Example:

echo -ne '-321\n-14\n-1\n-34\n-4\n' | awk 'BEGIN{max=""}{if ($1 > max) max=$1; if ($1 < min) min=$1;}END{print min"\t"max}'

This works properly because max is set to an empty string and thus has a lower value than any number. Try removing the BEGIN clause and see what happens. Also note that adding min=“” to the BEGIN clause fails as well.

no data directory test

You can use this to test if a directory contains no data. For example, it will say 0 if the directory only contains empty files and directories = no data.

du -s directory

cmp

This can compare two files byte by byte, and can be more useful than checksums. For example, after you burn a CD/DVD, you can run:

cmp slackware.iso /dev/sr0

It should say the following if the disk burned correctly:

cmp: EOF on slackware.iso

shell math

Remember that shell utilities like let and expr only do integer math. For floating point use either bc or awk.

shell GUI

External Links

Sources

  • I quoted man comm
  • I used man grep for the regex section.
  • Written by H_TeXMeX_H


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