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slackbook:booting [2012/09/05 04:41 (UTC)]
mfillpot [mkinitrd] synchronized formatting and content with the original document
slackbook:booting [2012/09/12 20:42 (UTC)] (current)
sycamorex [Sources] Bullet Points
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 multiple operating systems, such as other Linux distributions or Microsoft ​ multiple operating systems, such as other Linux distributions or Microsoft ​
 Windows. Windows.
 +
 +===== mkinitrd =====
 +
 Before we go any further, a quick discussion on the Linux kernel is Before we go any further, a quick discussion on the Linux kernel is
 warranted. ​ Slackware Linux includes at least two, but sometimes more, warranted. ​ Slackware Linux includes at least two, but sometimes more,
Line 30: Line 33:
  
  
-<​code>​+<​code ​bash>
 darkstar:~# ls -1 /​boot/​vmlinuz* darkstar:~# ls -1 /​boot/​vmlinuz*
 /​boot/​vmlinuz-huge-2.6.29.4 /​boot/​vmlinuz-huge-2.6.29.4
Line 106: Line 109:
  
  
-<​code>​+<​code ​bash>
 darkstar:~# mkinitrd --help darkstar:~# mkinitrd --help
 mkinitrd creates an initial ramdisk (actually an initramfs cpio+gzip mkinitrd creates an initial ramdisk (actually an initramfs cpio+gzip
Line 129: Line 132:
  
  
-<​code>​+<​code ​bash
 darkstar:~# mount darkstar:~# mount
 /dev/sda1 on / type ext4 (rw,​barrier=1,​data=ordered) /dev/sda1 on / type ext4 (rw,​barrier=1,​data=ordered)
Line 146: Line 149:
  
  
-<​code>​+<​code ​bash>
 darkstar:~# mkinitrd -f ext4 -r /dev/sda1 darkstar:~# mkinitrd -f ext4 -r /dev/sda1
 </​code>​ </​code>​
Line 167: Line 170:
  
  
-<​code>​+<​code ​bash>
 darkstar:~# >/​prompt>​cat /​etc/​mkinitrd.conf.sample darkstar:~# >/​prompt>​cat /​etc/​mkinitrd.conf.sample
 # See "man mkinitrd.conf"​ for details on the syntax of this file # See "man mkinitrd.conf"​ for details on the syntax of this file
Line 206: Line 209:
  
  
-<​code>​+<​code ​bash>
 darkstar:~# /​usr/​share/​mkinitrd/​mkinitrd_command_generator.sh darkstar:~# /​usr/​share/​mkinitrd/​mkinitrd_command_generator.sh
 mkinitrd -c -k 2.6.33.4 -f ext3 -r /dev/sda3 -m \ mkinitrd -c -k 2.6.33.4 -f ext3 -r /dev/sda3 -m \
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 ===== LILO ====== ===== LILO ======
  
-LILO is the Linux Loader and is currently the default boot loader installed with Slackware Linux. If you've used other Linux distributions before, you may be more familiar with GRUB. If you prefer to use GRUB instead, you can easily find it in the extra/ directory on one of your Slackware CDs. However, since LILO is the default Slackware bootloader, we'll focus exclusively on it.+LILO is the Linux Loader and is currently the default boot loader 
 +installed with Slackware Linux. ​ If you've used other Linux 
 +distributions before, you may be more familiar with GRUB.  If you prefer 
 +to use GRUB instead, you can easily find it in the  
 +''​extra/'' ​directory on one of your Slackware CDs.  
 +However, since LILO is the default Slackware bootloader, we'll focus  
 +exclusively on it.
  
-Configuring LILO can be a little daunting for new users, so Slackware comes with a special setup tool called liloconfig. Normally, liloconfig is first run by the installer, but you can run it at any time from a terminal. 
  
-{{ :​slackware:​setup_lilo_cl.png?550 |}}+Configuring LILO can be a little daunting for new users, so Slackware 
 +comes with a special setup tool called **//​liloconfig//​**. 
 +Normally, **//​liloconfig//​** is first run by the 
 +installer, but you can run it at any time from a terminal.
  
-liloconfig has two modes of operationsimple and expert. The "​simple"​ mode tries to automatically configure ​lilo for you. If Slackware is the only operating system installed on your computer, the "​simple"​ mode will almost always do the right thing quickly and easily. It is also very good at detecting Windows installations and adding them to /​etc/​lilo.conf so that you can choose which operating system to boot when you turn your computer on.+{{ :slackbook:​setup-lilo.png?550 |}}
  
-In order to use "expert"​ mode, you'll need to know Slackware'​s root partition. You can also setup other linux operating systems if you know their root partitions, but this may not work as well as you expectliloconfig will try to boot each linux operating system ​with Slackware'​s kerneland this is probably not what you want. Fortunately,​ setting up Windows partitions in expert ​mode is trivial. One hint when using expert mode: you should ​almost always ​install LILO to the Master Boot Record (MBR). Once upon a time, it was recommended to install the boot loader onto the root partition ​and set that partition as bootableToday, LILO has matured greatly ​and is safe to install on the MBRIn fact, you will encounter fewer problems if you do so.+**//​liloconfig//​** has two modes of operation:​ 
 +simple and expert.  The //"simple"// ​mode tries to automatically configure 
 +lilo for you.  If Slackware is the only operating system ​installed on 
 +your computerthe //"​simple"// ​mode will almost always ​do the right thing 
 +quickly ​and easily It is also very good at detecting Windows 
 +installations ​and adding them to ''/​etc/​lilo.conf''​ 
 +so that you can choose which operating system to boot when you 
 +turn your computer on.
  
-liloconfig is a great way to quickly setup your boot loader, but if you really need to know what's going on, you'll need to look at LILO's configuration file: lilo.conf(5) under the /etc directory. /​etc/​lilo.conf is separated into several sections. At the top, you'll find a "​global"​ section where you specify things like where to install LILO (generally the MBR), any special images or screens to show on boot, and the timeout after which LILO will boot the default operating system. Here's what the global section of my lilo.conf file looks like in part. 
  
-<code>+In order to use //"​expert"//​ mode, you'll need to know Slackware'​s root 
 +partition. ​ You can also setup other linux operating systems if you know 
 +their root partitions, but this may not work as well as you expect. 
 +**//​liloconfig//​** will try to boot each linux 
 +operating system with Slackware'​s kernel, and this is probably not what 
 +you want.  Fortunately,​ setting up Windows partitions in expert mode is 
 +trivial. ​ One hint when using expert mode: you should almost always 
 +install LILO to the Master Boot Record (MBR). ​ Once upon a time, it was 
 +recommended to install the boot loader onto the root partition and set 
 +that partition as bootable. ​ Today, LILO has matured greatly and is safe 
 +to install on the MBR.  In fact, you will encounter fewer problems if 
 +you do so. 
 + 
 + 
 +**//​liloconfig//​** is a great way to quickly setup 
 +your boot loader, but if you really need to know what's going on, you'​ll 
 +need to look at LILO's configuration file: 
 +''​lilo.conf''​(5) under the ''/​etc''​ 
 +directory. ​ ''/​etc/​lilo.conf''​ is separated into 
 +several sections. ​ At the top, you'll find a //"​global"//​ section where you 
 +specify things like where to install LILO (generally the MBR), any 
 +special images or screens to show on boot, and the timeout after which 
 +LILO will boot the default operating system. ​ Here's what the global 
 +section of my lilo.conf file looks like in part. 
 + 
 + 
 +<file>
 # LILO configuration file # LILO configuration file
  
Line 241: Line 284:
 vga = 773 vga = 773
 .... many more lines ommitted .... .... many more lines ommitted ....
-</code>+</file>
  
-For a complete listing of all the possible LILO options, you should consult the man page for lilo.conf. We'll briefly discuss the most common options in this document. 
  
-The first thing that should draw your attention is the "​boot"​ line. This determines where the bootloader is installed. In order to install to the Master Boot Record (MBR) of your hard drive, you simply list the hard drive's device entry on this lineIn my case, I'm using a SATA hard drive that shows up as a SCSI device /dev/sdaIn order to install to the boot block of a partition, you'​ll ​have to list the partition'​s device entry. For example, if you are installing to the first partition on the only SATA hard drive in your computer, you would probably use /dev/sda1.+For a complete listing of all the possible LILO options, you should 
 +consult ​the man page for ''lilo.conf''​. ​ We'​ll ​ 
 +briefly discuss ​the most common options ​in this document.
  
-The "​prompt"​ option simply tells LILO to ask (prompt) you for which operating system to boot. Operating systems are each listed in their own section deeper in the file. We'll get to them in a minute. The timeout option tells LILO how long to wait (in tenths of seconds) before booting the default OS. In my case, this is 5 seconds. Some systems seem to take a very long time to display the boot screen, so you may need to use a larger timeout value than I have set. This is in part why the simple LILO installation method utilizes a very long timeout (somewhere around 2 whole minutes). The append line in my case was set up by liloconfig. You may (and probably should) see something similar when looking at your own /​etc/​lilo.conf. I won't go into the details of why this line is needed, so you're just going to have to trust me that things work better if it is present. :^) 
  
-Now that we've looked into the global section, let's take a look at the operating systems section. Each linux operating system section begins with an "image" line. Microsoft Windows operating systems are specified with an "​other"​ lineLet'​s ​take look at sample ​/etc/lilo.conf that boots both Slackware and Microsoft Windows.+The first thing that should draw your attention is the //"boot"// line.  ​This 
 +determines where the bootloader is installed In order to install to 
 +the Master Boot Record (MBR) of your hard drive, you simply list the hard  
 +drive'​s ​device entry on this line.  In my case, I'm using SATA hard drive  
 +that shows up as SCSI device ''​/dev/sda''​ In order 
 +to install to the boot block of a partition, you'll have to list the  
 +partition'​s device entry. ​ For example, if you are installing to the first  
 +partition on the only SATA hard drive in your computer, you would probably  
 +use ''/​dev/​sda1''​.
  
-<code>+ 
 +The //"​prompt"//​ option simply tells LILO to ask (prompt) you for which 
 +operating system to boot.  Operating systems are each listed in their 
 +own section deeper in the file.  We'll get to them in a minute. ​ The 
 +timeout option tells LILO how long to wait (in tenths of seconds) 
 +before booting the default OS.  In my case, this is 5 seconds. ​ Some 
 +systems seem to take a very long time to display the boot screen, so 
 +you may need to use a larger timeout value than I have set.  This is in 
 +part why the simple LILO installation method utilizes a very long 
 +timeout (somewhere around 2 whole minutes). ​ The append line in my case 
 +was set up by **//​liloconfig//​**. ​ You may (and 
 +probably should) see something similar when looking at your own 
 +''/​etc/​lilo.conf''​. I won't go into the details of why  
 +this line is needed, so you're just going to have to trust me that things 
 +work better if it is present. :^) 
 + 
 + 
 +Now that we've looked into the global section, let's take a look at the 
 +operating systems section. ​ Each linux operating system section begins 
 +with an //"​image"//​ line.  Microsoft Windows operating systems are specified 
 +with an //"​other"//​ line. Let's take a look at a sample 
 +''/​etc/​lilo.conf''​ that boots both Slackware and  
 +Microsoft Windows. 
 + 
 + 
 +<file>
 # LILO configuration file # LILO configuration file
 ... global section ommitted .... ... global section ommitted ....
Line 266: Line 342:
   table = /dev/sda   table = /dev/sda
 # Windows bootable partition config ends # Windows bootable partition config ends
-</code>+</file> 
 + 
 + 
 +For Linux operating systems like Slackware, the image line specifies 
 +which kernel to boot.  In this case, we're booting 
 +''/​boot/​vmlinuz-generic-2.6.29.4''​. The remaining 
 +sections are pretty self-explanatory. ​ They tell LILO where to find the 
 +root filesystem, what initrd (if any) to use, and to initially mount 
 +the root filesystem read-only. ​ That initrd line is very important for 
 +anyone running a generic kernel or using LVM or software RAID.  It 
 +tells LILO (and the kernel) where to find the initrd you created using 
 +**//​mkinitrd//​**. 
  
-For Linux operating systems like Slackwarethe image line specifies which kernel ​to bootIn this casewe're booting ​/boot/vmlinuz-generic-2.6.29.4. The remaining sections are pretty self-explanatory. They tell LILO where to find the root filesystem, what initrd ​(if anyto use, and to initially mount the root filesystem read-only. That initrd line is very important for anyone running a generic kernel or using LVM or software RAID. It tells LILO (and the kernel) where to find the initrd you created using mkinitrd.+Once you've gotten ''/​etc/​lilo.conf''​ set up for your 
 +machinesimply run **//​lilo//​**(8) ​to install it. 
 +Unlike GRUB and other bootloadersLILO requires you re-run 
 +**//lilo//** anytime you make changes ​to its 
 +configuration file, or else the new (changedbootloader image will  
 +not be installed, and those changes will not be reflected.
  
-Once you've gotten /​etc/​lilo.conf set up for your machine, simply run lilo(8) to install it. Unlike GRUB and other bootloaders,​ LILO requires you re-run lilo anytime you make changes to its configuration file, or else the new (changed) bootloader image will not be installed, and those changes will not be reflected. 
  
-<​code>​+<​code ​bash>
 darkstar:~# lilo darkstar:~# lilo
 Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed Warning: LBA32 addressing assumed
Line 280: Line 372:
 </​code>​ </​code>​
  
-Don't be too scared by many of the warnings you may see when running lilo. Unless you see a fatal error, things should be just fine. In particular, the LBA32 addressing warning is commonplace.+ 
 +Don't be too scared by many of the warnings you may see when running 
 +**//lilo//**. Unless you see a fatal error, things 
 +should be just fine. In particular, the LBA32 addressing warning is 
 +commonplace.
 ===== Dual Booting ====== ===== Dual Booting ======
  
-A bootloader (like LILO) is a very flexible thing, since it exists only to determine which hard drive, partition, or even a specific kernel on a partition to boot. This inherently suggests a choice when booting, so the idea of having more than one operating system on a computer comes very naturally to a LILO or GRUB user.+A bootloader (like LILO) is a very flexible thing, since it exists 
 +only to determine which hard drive, partition, or even a specific 
 +kernel on a partition to boot. This inherently suggests a choice 
 +when booting, so the idea of having more than one operating system 
 +on a computer comes very naturally to a LILO or GRUB user.
  
-People "dual boot" for a number of reasons; some people want to have a stable Slackware install on one partition or drive and a development sandbox on another, other people might want to have Slackware on one and another Linux or BSD distribution on another, and still other people may have Slackware on one partition and a proprietary operating system (for work or for that one application that Linux simply cannot offer) on the other. 
  
-Dual booting should not be taken lightly, however, since it usually means that you'll now have two different operating systems attempting to manage the bootloader. If you dual boot, the likelihood ​of one OS over-writing ​or updating the bootloader entries without your direct intervention is great; if this happensyou'll have to modify GRUB or LILO manually so you can get into each OS.+People //"dual boot"// for a number ​of reasons; some people want 
 +to have a stable Slackware install on one partition ​or drive and a 
 +development sandbox on anotherother people might want to have 
 +Slackware on one and another Linux or BSD distribution on another, 
 +and still other people may have Slackware on one partition and a 
 +proprietary operating system (for work or for that one application 
 +that Linux simply cannot offer) on the other.
  
-There are two ways to dual (or multi) boot; you can put each operating system on its own hard drive (common on a desktop, with their luxury of having more than one drive bay) or each operating system on its own partition (common on a laptop where only one physical drive is present). 
  
 +Dual booting should not be taken lightly, however, since it usually
 +means that you'll now have two different operating systems
 +attempting to manage the bootloader. If you dual boot, the
 +likelihood of one OS over-writing or updating the bootloader entries
 +without your direct intervention is great; if this happens, you'll
 +have to modify GRUB or LILO manually so you can get into each OS.
 +
 +There are two ways to dual (or multi) boot; you can put each
 +operating system on its own hard drive (common on a desktop, with
 +their luxury of having more than one drive bay) or each operating
 +system on its own partition (common on a laptop where only one
 +physical drive is present).
 ==== Dual Booting with Partitions ==== ==== Dual Booting with Partitions ====
  
-In order to set up a dual-boot system with each operating system on its own partition, you must first create partitions. This is easiest if done prior to installing the first operating system, in which case it's a simple case of pre-planning and carving up your hard drive as you feel necessary. See the section called “[[slackbook:​install#​Partitioning|Partitioning]]” for information on using the fdisk or cfdisk partitioning applications.+In order to set up a dual-boot system with each operating system on 
 +its own partition, you must first create partitions. This is easiest 
 +if done prior to installing the first operating system, in which 
 +case it's a simple case of pre-planning and carving up your hard 
 +drive as you feel necessary. See [[slackbook:​install#​partitioning|the section called “Partitioning]] for 
 +information on using the **//fdisk//** or 
 +**//cfdisk//** partitioning applications. 
  
 <note important>​ <note important>​
-If you're dual booting two Linux distributions,​ it is inadvisable to attempt to share a /home directory between the systems. While it is technically possible, doing so will increase the chance of your personal configurations from becoming mauled by competing desktop environments or versions. +If you're dual booting two Linux distributions,​ it is inadvisable 
-</​note>​+to attempt to share a /home directory between the 
 +systems. While it is technically possible, doing so will increase 
 +the chance of your personal configurations from becoming mauled by 
 +competing desktop environments or versions.
  
 It is, however, safe to use a common swap partition. It is, however, safe to use a common swap partition.
 +</​note>​
  
 You should partition your drive into at least three parts: You should partition your drive into at least three parts:
Line 306: Line 433:
   * One partition for swap   * One partition for swap
  
-First, install Slackware Linux onto the first partition of the hard drive as described in [[slackbook:​install]|Chapter 2, Installation]].+First, install Slackware Linux onto the first partition of the hard 
 +drive as described in [[slackbook:​install]|Chapter 2, Installation]].
  
-After Slackware has been installed, booted, and you've confirmed that everything works as expected, then reboot to the installer for the second OS. This OS will invariably offer to utilize the entire drive; you obviously do not want to do that, so constrain it to only the second partition. Furthermore,​ the OS will attempt to install a boot loader to the beginning of the hard drive, overwriting LILO. 
  
-You have a few possible courses of action with regards to the boot loader:+After Slackware has been installed, booted, and you've confirmed 
 +that everything works as expected, then reboot to the installer for 
 +the second OS. This OS will invariably offer to utilize the entire 
 +drive; you obviously do **not** want to do that, so 
 +constrain it to only the second partition. Furthermore,​ the OS will 
 +attempt to install a boot loader to the beginning of the hard drive, 
 +overwriting LILO. 
 + 
 + 
 +You have a few possible courses of action with regards to the boot 
 +loader:
  
 **Possible Boot Loader Scenarios** **Possible Boot Loader Scenarios**
  
-**If the secondary OS is Linux, disallow it from installing a boot manager.** +**If the secondary OS is Linux, disallow it from installing a boot 
-If you're dual booting to another Linux distribution,​ the installer of that distribution usually asks if you want a boot loader installed. You're certainly free to not install a boot manager for it at all, and manually manage both Slackware and the other distribution with LILO.+manager.** ​\\ 
 +If you're dual booting to another Linux distribution,​ the 
 +installer of that distribution usually asks if you want a boot 
 +loader installed. You're certainly free to not install a boot 
 +manager for it at all, and manually manage both Slackware and 
 +the other distribution with LILO.
  
-Depending on the distribution,​ you might be editing LILO more frequently than you would if you were only running Slackware; some distributions are notorious for frequent kernel updates, meaning that you'll need to edit LILO to reflect the new configuration after such an update. But if you didn't want to edit configuration files every now and again, you probably wouldn'​t have chosen Slackware.+ 
 +Depending on the distribution,​ you might be editing LILO more 
 +frequently than you would if you were only running Slackware; 
 +some distributions are notorious for frequent kernel updates, 
 +meaning that you'll need to edit LILO to reflect the new 
 +configuration after such an update. But if you didn't want to 
 +edit configuration files every now and again, you probably 
 +wouldn'​t have chosen Slackware. ​
  
 **If the secondary OS is Linux, let it overwrite LILO with GRUB.** **If the secondary OS is Linux, let it overwrite LILO with GRUB.**
  
-If you're dual booting to another Linux distribution,​ you are perfectly capable of just using GRUB rather than LILO, or install Slackware last and use LILO for both. Both LILO and GRUB have very good auto-detection features, so whichever one gets installed last should pick up the other distribution'​s presence and make an entry for it.+If you're dual booting to another Linux distribution,​ you are 
 +perfectly capable of just using GRUB rather than LILO, or 
 +install Slackware last and use LILO for both. Both LILO and GRUB 
 +have very good auto-detection features, so whichever one gets 
 +installed last should pick up the other distribution'​s presence 
 +and make an entry for it.
  
-Since other distributions often attempt to auto-update their GRUB menus, there is always the chance that during an update something will become maligned and you suddenly find you can't boot into Slackware. If this happens, don't panic; just boot into the other Linux partition and manually edit GRUB so that it points to the correct partition, kernel, and initrd (if applicable) for Slackware in its menu. 
  
-**Allow the secondary OS to overwrite LILO and go back later to manually ​re-install ​and re-configure LILO.**+Since other distributions often attempt ​to auto-update their 
 +GRUB menus, there is always the chance that during an update 
 +something will become maligned and you suddenly find you can'​t 
 +boot into Slackware. If this happens, don't panic; just boot 
 +into the other Linux partition ​and manually ​edit GRUB so that it 
 +points to the correct partition, kernel, ​and initrd (if 
 +applicable) for Slackware in its menu.
  
-This is not a bad choice, especially when Windows is the secondary OS, but potential pitfalls are that when Windows updates itself, it may attempt ​to overwrite ​the MBR (master boot record) again, ​and you'll have to re-install LILO manually again.+**Allow ​the secondary OS to overwrite ​LILO and go back later to 
 +manually ​re-install ​and re-configure ​LILO. **
  
-To re-establish LILO after another ​OS has erased ​it, you can boot from your Slackware install media and enter the setup stage. Do not re-partition your drive or re-install ​Slackware; skip immediately to the section called “[[slackbook:​install#​the_setup_program|Configure]]”.+This is not a bad choice, especially when Windows is the 
 +secondary ​OS, but potential pitfalls are that when Windows 
 +updates itself, ​it may attempt to overwrite the MBR (master boot record) 
 +againand you'll have to re-install ​LILO manually again.
  
-Even when using the "​simple"​ option to install, LILO should detect both operating systems and automatically configure a sensible menu for you. If it fails, then add the entries yourself.+ 
 +To re-establish LILO after another OS has erased it, you can 
 +boot from your Slackware install media and enter the setup 
 +stage. Do <​emphasis>​not</​emphasis>​ re-partition your drive or 
 +re-install Slackware; skip immediately to [[slackbook:​install#​the_setup_program|Configure]].  
 + 
 + 
 +Even when using the //"​simple"​// option to install, LILO 
 +should detect both operating systems and automatically configure 
 +a sensible menu for you. If it fails, then add the entries 
 +yourself.
 ==== Dual Booting from Hard Drives ==== ==== Dual Booting from Hard Drives ====
  
-Dual booting between different physical hard drives is often easier than with partitions since the computer'​s BIOS or EFI almost invariably has a boot device chooser that allows you to interrupt the boot process immediately after POST and choose what drive should get priority.+Dual booting between different physical hard drives is often 
 +easier than with partitions since the computer'​s BIOS or EFI 
 +almost invariably has a boot device chooser that allows you to 
 +interrupt the boot process immediately after POST and choose what 
 +drive should get priority. 
 + 
 + 
 +The snag key to enter the boot picker is different for each brand 
 +of motherboard;​ consult the motherboard'​s manual or read the 
 +splash screen to find out what your computer requires. Typical 
 +keys are <​key>'​F1'</​key>,​ <​key>'​F12'</​key>,​ 
 +<​key>'​DEL'</​key>​. For Apple computers, it is always the 
 +<​key>'​Option'</​key>​ (Alt) key. 
 + 
 + 
 +If you manage the boot priority via BIOS or EFI, then each boot 
 +loader on each hard drive is only aware of its own drive and will 
 +never interfere with one another. This is rather contrary to what 
 +a boot loader is designed to do but can be a useful workaround 
 +when dealing with proprietary operating systems which insist upon 
 +being the only OS on the system, to the detriment of the user'​s 
 +preference. 
  
-The snag key to enter the boot picker is different for each brand of motherboard;​ consult the motherboard's manual or read the splash screen to find out what your computer ​requires. Typical keys are **F1, F12DEL**For Apple computers, it is always ​the **Option** (Alt) key.+If you don't have the luxury ​of having multiple internal hard 
 +drives and don't feel comfortable juggling another partition and 
 +OS on your computer, ​you might also consider using a bootable USB thumbdrive or even a 
 +virtual machine to give you access to another OSBoth of these 
 +options ​is outside ​the scope of this book, but they'​ve commonplace 
 +and might be the right choice for you, depending on your needs.
  
-If you manage the boot priority via BIOS or EFI, then each boot loader on each hard drive is only aware of its own drive and will never interfere with one another. This is rather contrary to what a boot loader is designed to do but can be a useful workaround when dealing with proprietary operating systems which insist upon being the only OS on the system, to the detriment of the user's preference. 
  
-If you don't have the luxury of having multiple internal hard drives and don't feel comfortable juggling another partition and OS on your computer, you might also consider using a bootable USB thumbdrive or even a virtual machine to give you access to another OS. Both of these options is outside the scope of this book, but they'​ve commonplace and might be the right choice for you, depending on your needs.+====== Chapter Navigation ====== 
 +**Previous Chapter: [[slackbook:​install|Installation]]**
  
 +**Next Chapter: [[slackbook:​shell|Basic Shell Commands]]**
 ====== Sources ====== ====== Sources ======
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- * Original source: [[http://​www.slackbook.org/​beta/#ch_boot]] +  ​* Original source: [[http://​www.slackbook.org/​beta]] ​\\
 <!-- Authors are allowed to give credit to themselves! --> <!-- Authors are allowed to give credit to themselves! -->
-<​!-- ​* Originally written by [[wiki:​user:​xxx | User X]] -->+  ​* Originally written by Alan Hicks, Chris Lumens, David Cantrell, Logan Johnson
 <!-- * Contrbutions by [[wiki:​user:​yyy | User Y]] --> <!-- * Contrbutions by [[wiki:​user:​yyy | User Y]] -->
  

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